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美联英语怎么样:职称考试被动语态攻略(一)

2015-02-04 12:22   类别:语法   来源:   责编:Dong

本期美联英语给大家带来职称考试被动语态攻略,欢迎阅读!

一、被动语态考点聚焦

  (一)被动语态的概念:

  不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by短语有时可以省略)。

  (二)被动语态的构成方式:

  be + 过去分词,口语只也有用get / become + 过去分词表示。

  (三)被动语态的基本用法:

  (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。

  ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。

   My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday.

   An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday.

   I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday.

  ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加to。

   The boss made him work all day long.

   He was made to work all day long(by the boss)

  ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。

   The children were taken good care of (by her).

   Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to.

  ④情态动词和be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better等结构变被动语态,   只需将它们后面的动词原形变为be +过去分词。

  ⑤当句子的谓语为say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report等时,被动语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用it作形式主语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如:

   People say he is a smart boy.

   It is said that he is a smart boy.

   He is said to be a smart boy.

   People know paper was made in China first.

   It is known that paper was made in China first.

   Paper was known to be made in China first.

  类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that …

  (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。

  ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。

  ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to等。

  ③表示归属的动词,如have、own、belong to等。

  ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate等。

  ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。

  ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。

  ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有sell、write、wash、open、lock等。

  (3)主动形式表被动意义。

  ①当feel、look、smell、taste、sound等后面接形容词时;当cut、read、sell、wear、write等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。

   This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。

   These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。

   My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。

   The door won’t lock.门锁不上。

   The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。

  ②当break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等意思时。

   The plan worked out successfully.

   The lamps on the wall turn off.

  ③want, require, need后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。

  ④be worth doing用主动形式表示被动含义。

  ⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。

   This kind of water isn’t fit to drink.

   The girl isn’t easy to get along with.

  另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。

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  (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。

  ①be seated坐着

   He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。

  ②be hidden躲藏

   He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。

  ③be lost迷路

  ④be drunk喝醉

  ⑤be dressed穿着

  The girl was dressed in a red short skirt.

  (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别

  被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如:

  The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态)

  The book is well sold.(系表结构)

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